Blood loss and transfusion rates following total hip arthroplasty: a multivariate analysis


total hip arthroplasty; haemoglobin; blood loss; transfusion

Published online: May 03 2022

Amogh Patil, Benjamin Michael Sephton, Thomas Ashdown, Peyman Bakhshayesh

From the Department of Surgery and Cancer, St Mary’s Hospital, London


This study aimed to identify factors that inde- pendently predict increased rates of transfusion following total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery. A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing THA surgery over 12 months was performed. Electronic operative records were analysed to determine the following patient factors: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities, indication for surgery, surgical technique, type of implant used, haematological markers, hospital length of stay (LOS) and complications. A total of 244 patients were included. There were 141 females (58%) and 103 males (42%). The median age was 65±12. The median pre-operative blood volume was 4500mls (IQR; 4000-5200). The median blood loss was 1069mls (IQR; 775-1390). The total number of patients requiring transfusion was 28 (11%), with a median of two units being transfused. Pre-operative haemoglobin (p<0.001) level, haematocrit (p<0.001) level and weight (p=0.016) were found to be predictive of transfusion requirement as well as ASA grade (p=0.005). Application of an intra-operative surgical drain was associated with higher rates of transfusion (p<0.001). Our study strengthens the evidence that pre-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels are valuable predictors of patients requiring transfusion. Additionally, ASA grade may be viewed as a helpful factor in predicting risk of transfusion. A strategy incorporating pre-operative optimisation of modifiable factors may reduce rates of transfusion requirement.