Low blood transfusion rate after implementation of tranexamic acid for fast- track hip- and knee arthroplasty. An observational study of 5205 patients


Tranexamic acid ; fast-track surgery ; knee arthroplasty ; hip arthroplasty ; unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

Published online: Jun 15 2021


Yoeri Bemelmans, Emil Van Haaren, Bert Boonen, Roel Hendrickx, Martijn Schotanus

From the department of orthopaedic surgery and traumatology, Zuyderland Medical Centre, Sittard-Geleen, The Netherlands


The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of a tranexamic acid (TXA) perioperative protocol for primary hip- and knee arthroplasty, in terms of allogenic blood transfusion rates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included all primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures in the period of 2014-2019. Patients who underwent surgery due to trauma or revision were excluded. A total amount of 5205 patients were eligible for inclusion. Two equal and weight depending doses of TXA were given, preoperative as an oral dose and intravenously at wound closure. The primary outcome was blood transfusion rate. Further analysis on patient characteristics (e.g. age, gender), blood loss, perioperative haemoglobin (Hb) levels and complication/readmission rate was performed.

A total of 49 (0.9%) patients received perioperative allogenic blood transfusions. Mean age, distribution of gender, body-mass index, American Society of Anaesthesiologists score, duration of surgery, type of arthroplasty, estimated blood loss, perioperative Hb levels and length of stay were statistically significant different between transfused and not-transfused patients. The incidence of thromboembolic adverse events (e.g. deep vein thrombosis/lung embolism) was 0.5%. Low blood transfusion rate was found after implementation of a standardized perioperative TXA protocol for primary hip and knee arthroplasty.