Characteristics of femoroacetabular impingement morphology and relation with skeletal maturity among asymptomatic adolescents


femoroacetabular impingement ; cam ; pincer ; physeal closure

Published online: Jun 15 2021

Mehmet Kaymakoglu, Raziye Dut, Duygu Imre, Fatma Bilge Ergen, Mehmet Ali Talmac, Cemalettin Aksoy

From the Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Radiology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey


The aim of this study was to analyze presence of the morphological characteristics and prevalence of FAI in asymptomatic adolescents and assess the relation of skeletal maturation with development of FAI morphology.

Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) of 265 adolescents (9-19 years old) who were admitted to the emergency department between 2011 and 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. Radial reformatted CT images from the femoral neck were created using the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) method. The femoral neck was divided into 12 segments and alpha angle (AA), femoral head-neck ratio (FHNR) and center-edge angle (CEA) were measured from each segment. Additionally, images were evaluated for the physiological status (open or closed) of the triradiate- cartilage and proximal femoral epiphyses.

204 hips from 102 patients (32 females, 70 males) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 27 (26.5%) patients with cam-type morphology and 18 (17.6%) patients with pincer-type morphologies. No statistically significant difference was detected between the prevalences of cam and pincer morphologies between the two genders. Cam deformity was most frequently seen in anterosuperior segment. All of the patients (100%) with pincer-type morphology and 88% of the patients with cam-type morphology had closed triradiate cartilage, 89% of the patients with cam morphology and 83% with pincer morphology had open proximal femoral physis.

Our results showed that prevalence of cam and pincer-type morphology in asymptomatic adolescents is similar to asymptomatic adults. Our findings also indicate that cam- and pincer-type FAI morphologies likely develop during late adolescence after closure of triradiate cartilage and before closure of proximal femoral physis.

Level of Evidence - 3